An Engineering Approach to Strain Rate and Temperature Compensation of the Flow Stress Established by the Hydraulic Bulge Test
Optical measuring systems enable a very accurate determination of the flow stress for the hydraulic bulge test. The flow stress is strain rate and temperature dependent and for the description of work hardening an approximation of the temperature during the test is required. Measuring the temperature during the test usually interferes with the optical strain measurement. A model for the temperature distribution on the bulged surface is developed based on heat generated by plastic work, convection to air on the outer surface, conduction to the tools at the die diameter and conduction to oil on the inside. The plastic work is derived from an approximation of the shape of the bulged surface and an approximation for the thickness distribution, starting from the initial thickness at the die ring to the established thickness at the pole, making use of volume conservation for the bulged sheet. The parameters of the model are tuned to bulge test temperature measurements of four different steel grades using a thermo couple at the pole. The results of the analytical temperature model are in good agreement with the measurements.
Aldo Ofenheimer, Cecilia Poletti, Daniela Schalk-Kitting and Christof Sommitsch
J. Mulder et al., "An Engineering Approach to Strain Rate and Temperature Compensation of the Flow Stress Established by the Hydraulic Bulge Test", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 651-653, pp. 138-143, 2015