Abstract: Aging process especially in asphalt binder material can occur throughout the life cycle of asphalt pavement starting from mixing, placement and during the service life. During this process, the more stiffer and brittle of asphalt binder is produced due to age hardening and gives an indication of initial factor of deterioration in asphalt pavement. A number of noteworthy researchers have focused on oil based modification to produce modified asphalt binder by using Waste Cooking Oil (WCO), due to the presence of natural antioxidant properties possessed in WCO. Antioxidant has played the role as an oxidative inhibition and has the potential to minimize the aging rate to occur. The aging process is conducted by separating between short term and long term aging where short term oxidative aging of binders was simulated using rolling thin film oven (RTFO) while long term aging was performed using pressure aging vessel (PAV). The laboratory evaluation was carried out to investigate the relationship between the qualities of WCO that affect the availability of antioxidant amount towards the susceptibility of aging rate by conducting Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). The result from rheological studies demonstrated that the lowest Aging Index (AI) is presented as 2.14, 2.18 and 1.79 for replacement by using WCO in December sample at concentration of 3%, 4% and 5% for short term aging while AI at 3% = 5.17 and 5% = 7.22 for long term aging. Therefore, the high quality of oil represented by WCO in December sample has indicated the high availability of antioxidant content that can minimize the aging susceptibility in the asphalt binder modified by WCO.
Abstract: The behavior and performance of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an additive and replacement of neat bitumen through the modification of asphalt binder is influenced by its chemical structure and composition. Therefore, the identification of chemical composition inside the WCO-modified bitumen should be identified before any modification is taken that later on will affect its performance. Thus, this paper has emphasized and explained about the chemical composition inside modified bitumen by using WCO. The characterization of each chemical element and functional group of WCO-modified bitumen are conducted by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Selective (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). GCMS result showed that the presence of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) in WCO while from the FTIR observation, there are same type of functional group existed in all sample which is C-H bond (alkyl). Through the chemical observation conducted, therefore the chemical alteration is required to improve the performance of WCO in modified bitumen in the future.
Abstract: Oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization process during frying activity has caused the alteration value of the waste cooking oil (WCO) properties which is acid value and water content. This parameter is recognized as the quality measurement of waste cooking oil that might be affecting the performance of WCO in binder modification. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to relate the quality of WCO by the determination of the WCO parameter with the performance of WCO in modified binder by physical and rheological binder testing. Based on the finding, the high and good quality of WCO is recorded in December sample with the lowest acid value (1.66 mL/g) and water content (0.01 ml). The high quality of WCO affected the good performance of rheological properties where the higher rutting resistance and temperature failure at 64 °C is achieved by the modified asphalt binder with the addition of WCO in December sample.
Abstract: Significant quantities of coconut shell (CS), a by-product of agriculture, can be used as an artificial source of coarse aggregates. In this study, four CSs were used as coarse aggregates replacement in asphalt concrete with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% weight volumes. The particle sizes of the CSs used as main coarse aggregates range from 5 mm to 20 mm. The Marshall Stability test shows that the optimum bitumen content for asphalt mixtures is 5.1%. The engineering properties investigated include the volumetric, dynamic creep, indirect tensile strength, and resilient modulus. Test results show that stability decreases with increasing CS content because of high water absorption. Considering that CSs absorb bitumen, a further detailed investigation is needed to assess the performance of modified bitumen on mixture. Furthermore, the use of CSs as coarse aggregates in asphalt concrete help increase the resilient modulus, stiffness, and indirect tensile strength up to 30%. Generally, a 10% replacement of coarse aggregates with CSs is the optimal limit.
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of adding various percentages of styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) on the engineering properties and performance of asphaltic concrete. SBR was added into the mixture at 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% on a mass-to-mass basis. Conventional bitumen used in this study was 80/100 PEN. The performances of SBR on the asphalt mixture properties were evaluated based on Marshall Stability, abrasion loss, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep test. Results indicated an improvement in the engineering properties and performance with the addition of SBR content. For instance, stability increased by 18.8% as the SBR content increased from 0% to 5%. Dynamic creep stiffness also increased by 46.2%. Similarly, the resilient modulus was also found to increase by approximately 84.6%.
Abstract: A well-designed energy efficient building provide long term building optimisation while minimising the energy. Site planning and orientation of the building plays an important factor at the early stage of any development. Especially to determine the best location for the building opening and windows and also the suitable materials to enhance comfort to the occupants and reduce the energy consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the site planning and orientation of the selected office building. The benchmark for the analysis will be based on the architectural and passive design component provided in MS 1525:2007 for the site planning and orientation through comparative analysis. Three energy efficient office building in Kuala Lumpur were selected in this research. This case study is important in helping to understand the relationship between site planning, building orientation, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness.
Abstract: The concept of sustainable building incorporates and integrates a variety of strategies during the design, construction and operation of building projects. The use of green building materials and products represents one important strategy in the design of a building. Green building materials offer specific benefits to the building owner and building occupants such as reducing maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building, energy conservation, improving occupant health and productivity, and greater design flexibility. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify the similarities and the differences for the selected green assessment tools which can be obtained stage by stage of the RIBA Outline Plan of Work 2013. The study had been carried out through a comparative analysis. The finding is predicted to help the construction industry practitioners to be able to understand the assessment criteria involved at every stages in the construction process concerning on material and recourses. Especially for those who are concerned on green building and to sustain our natural environment.