Numerical Optimization and Practical Implementation of the Tube Extrusion Process of Mg Alloys with Micromechanical Analysis of the Final Product


Article Preview

The paper is devoted to the development of a process of tubes extrusion from MgCa08 magnesium alloy. For optimization of extrusion process the Qform software was used. The numerical model of flow stress and fracture criterion for MgCa08 were obtained based on tension/compression measurements performed in a universal testing machine Zwick Z250. Predictions of the flow stress and deformations were modeled as well as the ductility of material. The process was optimized according to the plasticity and temperature criterions. In the optimization process, temperature of the billet and the speed of extrusion were determined. Based on the optimal parameters the extrusion of tubes with external diameter of 5 mm was performed in the laboratory press. On top of the macroscopic testing and calculations, investigations of the material microstructure and the micromechanical behavior of the material after the extrusion were performed by a combination of SEM and nanoindentation analyses. Micromechanical properties of the alloy were detected with the aid of statistical nanoindentation. Samples were characterized in terms of their microstructural defects, distribution of elastic modulus and hardness. Good particle dispersion and homogeneous-like distribution of micromechanical properties was found showing the efficiency of the extrusion process.



Main Theme:

Edited by:

Danuta Szeliga and Krzysztof Muszka




A. Milenin et al., "Numerical Optimization and Practical Implementation of the Tube Extrusion Process of Mg Alloys with Micromechanical Analysis of the Final Product", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 716, pp. 55-62, 2016

Online since:

October 2016




* - Corresponding Author

[1] P. Machado, Extrusion die design, Proceeding of Fifth International Extrusion Technology Seminar, Chicago, USA, May 19-22, 1992, pp.385-389.

[2] M. Kiuchi, J. Yanagimoto, V. Mendoza, Three-Dimensional FE Simulation and Extrusion Die Design, J. Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast. 39 (1998) 27-32.

[3] J. Herberg, K. Gundeso, I. Skauvic, Application of Numerical Simulation in Design of Extrusion Dies, 6th Int. Aluminium Extrusion Technology Seminar, Chicago, USA, May 14-17, 1996, pp.275-281.

[4] A. Milenin, Mathematical Modeling of Operations of Correcting the Dies for Section Extruding, Metallurgicheskaya i Gornorudnaya Promyshlennost 1-2 (2000), 64-66.

[5] A. Milenin, S. Berski, G. Banaszek, H. Dyja, Theoretical Analysis and Optimization of Parameters in Extrusion Process of Explosive Cladded Bimetallic Rods, J. Mater. Process. Tech. 157-158 (2004) 208-212.


[6] A.I. Lishnij, N.V. Biba A. Milenin, Two Levels Approach to the Problem of Extrusion Optimization, Simulation of Materials Processing: Theory, Methods and Applications, in: J. Huetink, F.P.T. Baaijens, (Eds. ), Proc. of the 7th Int. Conf. on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Enschede, Netherlands, 1998, p.627.

[7] N. Biba, S. Stebunov, A. Lishny, A. Vlasov, New Approach to 3D Finite-Element Simulation of Material Flow and its Application to Bulk Metal Forming, 7th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, Yokohama, Japan, Oct 27 – Nov 1, 2002, pp.829-834.

[8] A. Milenin, Modelowanie Numeryczne Procesów Wyciskania Profili z Zastosowaniem Gęstości Dyslokacji jako Zmiennej Wewnętrznej w Modelu Reologicznym Materiału, Informatyka w Technologii Materiałów 1(2) (2002) 26-33.

[9] A. Milenin, N. Biba, S. Stebunow, Modelowania Procesów Wyciskania Cienkościennych Kształtów z Wykorzystaniem Teorii Dyslokacji do Opisania Właściwości Reologicznych Stopów Aluminium, Materiały 9 Konferencji Informatyka w Technologii Metali, Jan 13 – 16, 2002, pp.217-222.

[10] A. Milenin, A.N. Golovko I. Mamuzic, The Application of Three-Dimensional Computer Simulation when Developing Dies for Extrusion of Aluminium Shapes, Metallurgija 41(1) (2002) 53-55.

[11] N. Odawa, M. Shiomi, K. Osakada, Forming Limit of Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures for Precision Forming, Int. J. Mach. Tools Man. 42 (2002) 607-614.


[12] K. Yoshida, Cold Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Wire and Fabrication of Microscrews, Steel Grips. 2 (2004) 199-202.

[13] P. Kustra, A. Milenin, B. Płonka, T. Furushima, Production Process of Biocompatible Magnesium Alloy Tubes Using Extrusion and Dieless Drawing Processes, J. Mater. Eng. Perf. 25(6) (2016) 2528–2535.


[14] A. Milenin, P. Kustra, D. Byrska-Wojcik, FEM-BEM code for the multiscale modeling and computer aided design of wire drawing technology for magnesium alloys, Adv. Eng. Mater. 16 (2014) 202–210.


[15] A. Milenin, M. Gzyl, T. Rec, B. Plonka Computer aided design of wires extrusion from biocompatible Mg-Ca magnesium alloy, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 59(2) (2014) 551–556.


[16] G.V. Voort, Metallography of Magnesium and its Alloys, Tech Notes 4(2), publ. Buehler, (1997).

[17] M.M. Avedesian, H. Baker, Mg and Mg Alloys. ASM International. Materials Park OH, (1999).

[18] W. Oliver, G. Pharr, An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic-Modulus using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments, J. Mater. Res. 7 (1992) 1564-1583.