Engineering Materials and Technology

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Authors: Jordan Graham, Savko Malinov, Roy Douglas, Rose Mary Stalker
Abstract: A systematic testing procedure has been employed to investigate the high temperature oxidation kinetics of AISI 316L. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis was carried out at 950°C, 1050°C, 1150°C and 1250°C for 8h. Alongside this, isothermal furnace treatments were carried out on samples of the same material at the same temperatures for time periods of 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h and 8h. Changes in oxidation kinetics were observed on mass gain curves plotted from data derived from the TG analysis. When a change in oxidation kinetics was identified, the structure, thickness and composition of the oxides formed on the isothermal treatment samples at time periods before and after the change occurred could be studied. It was found that this systematic testing procedure provided a great deal of useful information allowing more meaningful conclusions to be made on the influence of oxide layer thickness, structure and composition on high temperature oxidation kinetics.
Authors: R.E. Ibrahim, Ramli Rosmamuhamadani, Mahesh Talari, Sabrina M. Yahaya, Sreenivasan Sulaiman, M.I.S. Ismail
Abstract: Aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are an important class of materials, alloys which have great interested in wide industries whether in light or heavy industries, due to their superior properties like high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and excellent castability. The mechanical strength and the effect of modifying alloys have been studied. To evaluate the strength and revealed the structural of these alloys, the Instron tensile and Shimidzu Vickers hardness tester have been employed while the fracture surfaces have been observed by Scanning electron microscope (SEM). From results obtained, the microstructure of Al-Si with TiB2 has much finer microstructure compared to unfine Al-Si alloy. It showed that the eutectic silicon microstructure in Al-Si alloy changed from needles-look or acicular to fine grain size or globular when the added of TiB2. The mechanical studies showed that the ductility of Al-Si alloy was much lower in the absence of grain refiner, TiB2. The tensile strength of unrefined Al-Si and Al-Si with 6 wt.%TiB2 as grain refinement were recorded 275 and 312 MPa respectively. The hardness value for the unrefined Al-Si alloy also shows less compared with Al-Si with grain refiner, 6 wt.%TiB2, which are 74 and 78 MPa. This showed the results were significant improvements in mechanical properties have been obtained with the use of TiB2 as grain refiner to Al-Si alloy.
Authors: Jun Yeong Ko, Sun Ig Hong
Abstract: In this study, the effect of carbon addition the cast and rolled microstructures of Cantor alloy type FeCoCrNiMn high entropy alloys. Both as-cast FeCoCrNiMn and FeCoCrNiMnC0.1 alloys have dendritic microstructure. Small particles, which may be associated carbon addition exist in the dendrite arms in FeCoCrNiMnC0.1 alloy. After homogenization treatment at 1327K for 24 hrs., dendritic structure was completely eliminated after annealing. Dendritic structure was converted to the structure with elongated grains, especially for carbon added FeCoCrNiMnC0.1. The development of elongated grains is associated with the direction of the primary arms in the dendritic structure. Carbides are segregated at the grain boundaries in FeCoCrNiMnC0.1 alloy. It also appears that growth of grains is impeded by the segregation of carbides. It is apparent that the grain boundary precipitates are Cr-rich. Both the strength and ductility of FeCoCrNiMnC0.1 increased over FeCoCrNiMn with the addition of 0.1 wt. % carbon. The increase of ductility in FeCoCrNiMnC0.1 may be caused by the rapid hardening in FeCoCrNiMnC0.1 due to dislocation-solute interaction.
Authors: You Bin Kang, Kap Ho Lee, Sun Ig Hong
Abstract: In this study, creep properties and fracture behavior of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy (HEA) were studied at intermediate temperatures. The invert-type transient primary creep behaviors were observed in CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy. Creep behaviors of HEA are similar to those of class I solid solution alloys. The transient creep curves upon increase of stress by 5MPa in the steady state creep region did not change much except the sudden strain increase. And, no decrease of creep rate was observed upon increase of stress. Instead, the slightly invert transient creep or almost straight creep curves were observed, supporting the high friction stress. CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy has a stress exponent of 3.75 and the creep activation energy was calculated to be 278KJ/mole. The fracture strain increased from 1.3 to 1.6 with the decrease of stress from 96 MPa to 48MPa. The lower stress exponent along with the invert type primary creep curves strongly suggest that the creep of CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloy at 600°C~650°C occurs by a glide controlled process.
Authors: Sachin Kumar Rathi, Ashok Sharma, Marisa di Sabatino
Abstract: Hot tearing is a common and severe defect encountered in aluminium alloys castings. It is affected by alloy composition as well as processing conditions and variables. In Al–7Si-3Cu presence of copper increases mechanical properties of the alloy, but it makes the alloy susceptible to hot tearing. The observations on the microstructures and the fracture surfaces propose that the hot tearing initiated at the grain boundaries and propagated along them through the thin liquid film. Grain refinement limits the hot tearing tendency of the Al-Si-Cu alloy. An attempt has been made to record the effect of annealed Al-5Ti-1B master alloy on minimizing hot tearing tendency in the gravity die cast of Al-7Si-3Cu alloys. It is observed that grain refining efficiency of Al-5Ti-1B master alloy is increased with increase in annealing temperature. This is attributed to the increased fraction of TiAl3 particles and the possible formation of (Ti,Al)B2 phase. Characterization study has been carried out by OM, SEM and XRD analysis.
Authors: Nam Duong, Le Thi Chieu, Pham Mai Khanh
Abstract: This article studies the mechanism of work hardening of austenitic high manganese steel alloyed with chromium and vanadium. The steel was annealed at 650°C before austenitizing at 1100°C, and then was quenched with water. We have observed that after the heat treatment, the size of austenite grain was small (1,950μm2 - level 6). The hardness of the steel was 223HB and the toughness was 115J/cm2. After impact loading, there was no martensite but twinning and sliding in the microstructure of the steel. The nano austenite was found in the microstructure. The steel was also hardened by small austenite grain and the carbide particles were finely dispersed in the microstructure.
Authors: Hisashi Imai, Hiroyasu Yamabe, Katsuyoshi Kondoh, Junko Umeda, Anak Khantachawana
Abstract: Dependence of the mechanical properties of PM extruded titanium with the silicon nitride (Si3N4) on solid phase decomposition of Si3N4 was investigated. Si3N4 particles within Ti composite powder were decomposed during spark plasma sintering at 1223 K with 30 MPa pressure for 3.6 ks; and then, decomposition by-products of nitrogen and silicon atoms were defused into titanium matrix. The extruded Ti-1.0 mass% Si3N4 composite showed ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1139 MPa, and yield stress (0.2%YS) of 1065 MPa. UTS and 0.2%YS of P/M extruded Ti-1.0 mass% Si3N4 composite were 2 and 2.5 times compared to extruded pure Ti powder material, respectively. It was considered that the solid solution strengthening of both nitrogen and silicon originated from Si3N4 caused the high strength of PM extruded Ti-1.0 mass% Si3N4 composite.
Authors: Seung Min Oh, Sun Ig Hong
Abstract: In the present study, the microstructural stability and mechanical properties of a MnFeCoNiCu alloy in which Cr was replaced by Cu from Cantor composition (CoCrFeMnNi) was studied. In the as-cast alloy, the dendrite arms are enriched with Cu and Mn and matrix between dendrite arms is enriched with Fe and Co. Ni was richer in the matrix, but also observed in the dendrite arms. Cu and Mn tend to segregate and solidify initially because the melting temperatures of Cu and Mn are lower than Fe and Co, resulting in the growth of Cu-Mn dendrite. After homogenization, the dendrites structure disappeared and grain boundaries are visible, indicating the segregated elements in the dendrite structure were homogenized. The presence of single phase FCC structure was confirmed after homogenization. The tensile strength of 1220 MPa with the ductility of 6 % was obtained in MnFeCoNiCu alloy.
Authors: Shao Hua Yin, Yu Zhong Wei, Gan Gang Wang, Tian Zuo Liu, Peng Cheng, Jian Lin Zhang
Abstract: In order to find out the causes of weld cracks in the main steam pipe welded joint of a power plant, a series of relevant tests are specially formulated, which include room temperature tensile and high temperature tensile test, room temperature impact test, the crack tip metallographic observation, crack fracture scanning electron microscope observation, oxide film thickness measurement, and so on. By analyzing the metallographic photographs of the crack, the crack character is preliminarily determined. In addition, the direction of crack extension is determined by the thickness of oxide film in different parts. The crack failure mechanism has been identified. The results show that the welding heat crack occurs in 1# crack initiation position; and the crack initiation in 2# weld crack (primary crack) position is caused by the root defect of welding seam and lead to a high brittleness, which results in the crack failure by crack propagating in operational process gradually.

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