Conversion of Electric Arc Furnace Dust into Ceramics Using Thermodynamic Calculations and Experimental Work
Steelmaking is accompanied with releasing a large quantity of solid particle in the form of dust. Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is known to have high pH number and traces of heavy metals. The objective of this work was to find a suitable procedure for converting the dust waste into inert and useful byproducts using thermodynamic calculations and experimental investigation. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of initial EAFD were analyzed using different techniques, such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), grain size analysis and metallography. The pH measurement procedure was carried out in accordance with the standard test method for pH of soils “ASTM 4972-95a”. The results of XRD, SEM and EDS analysis were consistent and showed that Fe2O3, CaO, Al2O3, SiO2, MgO, ZnO and traces of other oxides are in the main composition of the EAFD batches with different relative amounts. Furthermore, the particle size measurements revealed that the EAFD particles are in the 0.1 to 394 μm size range. The pH number was ranging between 11.15 and 12.21 for all measurements. The experimental results were used as input data for thermodynamic calculations and accordingly SiO2 and Al2O3 were among the candidates for making ceramic materials through forming glass regions that surround and encapsulate the iron oxide particles. SiO2 modified samples exhibited better apparent structural properties than other compositions. Whereas Al2O3-modified samples showed variation in the product color. Thus, it is concluded from this work that a mixture of EAFD can be modified by 5-20 wt.% of SiO2 and then fired at 1100°C to make inert ceramic materials with reasonable mechanical properties.
A. Mostafa et al., "Conversion of Electric Arc Furnace Dust into Ceramics Using Thermodynamic Calculations and Experimental Work", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 765, pp. 73-78, 2018