Study of a Binder System for Ti-MIM: A Potential Low Temperature Backbone Polymer


Article Preview

Impurity control remains to be a challenge to titanium metal injection moulding (Ti-MIM). Much attention has been paid to polyethylene glycol (PEG) based binder systems due to the eco-friendly and water-soluble feature of PEG. In this study, a new easy-to-debind PEG/polypropylene carbonate (PPC)-based binder system (76% PEG+17% PPC+3% polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)+2% stearic acid (SA)+2% polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)) was developed. The rheological properties of the feedstocks prepared with the binder system in different proportions were assessed. Debinding behaviours of the moulded samples and impurity contents of oxygen (O), carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) of the thermal debound specimens were investigated as well.



Edited by:

Huiping Tang, Ma Qian, Yong Liu, Peng Cao and Gang Chen




H. Z. Zhang et al., "Study of a Binder System for Ti-MIM: A Potential Low Temperature Backbone Polymer", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 770, pp. 206-213, 2018

Online since:

May 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] G. Welsch, R. Boyer, and E.W. Collings: Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, (1994).

[2] C. Leyens, and M. Peters, Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications. 2003, Weinheim : [Chichester: Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; Chichester: John Wiley distributor c2003.

[3] N. Mitsuo, Recent research and development in titanium alloys for biomedical applications and healthcare goods. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2003. 4(5): p.445.


[4] J.E. Barnes, W. Peter & C.A. Blue (2009). Evaluation of low cost titanium alloy products. Materials Science Forum, Vol. 618, pp.165-168.


[5] F.H. Froes & A.M. Imam, (2010). Cost affordable developments in titanium technology and applications. Key Engineering Materials Vol. 436, pp.1-11.


[6] J.R. Merhar, Overview of metal injection moulding. Metal Powder Report, 1990. 45(5): pp.339-342.


[7] F.S. Froes, M.N. Gungor & M.A. Imam (2007). Cost-affordable titanium: the component fabrication perspective. JOM, 59(6), 28-31.


[8] Y. Kaneko, K. Ameyama, K. Saito, H. Iwasaki & M. Tokizane, (1988). Injection molding of Ti powder. Journal of the Japan Society of Powder and Powder metallurgy, 35(7), 646-650.


[9] F.S. Froes & R.M. German, (2000). Cost reductions prime Ti PIM for growth. Metal Powder Report, 6(55), 12-14.


[10] H.H. Angermann & O. Vander Biest (1995). Binder removal in powder injection molding. Reviews in Particulate Materials, 3, 35-69.

[11] G. Wen, P. Cao, B. Gabbitas, D. Zhang & N. Edmonds (2013). Development and design of binder systems for titanium metal injection molding: An overview. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 44(3), 1530-1547.


[12] G. Chen, P. Cao, G. Wen & N. Edmonds (2013). Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 139(2), 557-565.


[13] A.B. Sulong, N. Muhamad, A. Arifin & K.B. Yong (2012).

[14] M.Y. Cao, J.W. O'Connor & C.I. Chung (1992). A new water soluble solid polymer solution binder for powder injection molding. In Powder Injection Molding Symposium--1992 (pp.85-98).


[15] A.T. Sidambe, I.A. Figueroa, H.G.C. Hamilton & I. Todd (2012). Metal injection moulding of CP-Ti components for biomedical applications. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 212(7), 1591-1597.


[16] M.D. Hayat, G. Wen & P. Cao (2015). An easy-to-decompose binder for Ti metal injection molding: Preparation and characterization of feedstock. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 29(10n11), 1540005.


[17] N. Chuankrerkkul, P.F. Messer and H.A. Davies, Application of Polyethylene Glycol and Polymethyl Methacrylate as a Binder for Powder Injection Moulding of Hard metals. Chiang Mai J. Sci, 2008. 35(1): pp.188-195.

[18] W. Liu, et al., Optimisation of compositions of PEG/PMMA binder system in ceramic injection moulding via water debinding. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 2014. 0(0): p. 1743676114Y.0000000190.


[19] G. Chen, et al., Water debinding behavior of water soluble Ti- MIM feedstock. Powder Metallurgy, 2015. 58(3): pp.220-227.


[20] G. Herranz, Control of carbon content in metal injection molding (MIM), in Handbook of metal injection molding, D.F. Heaney, Editor. 2012, Woodhead Publishing: USA. pp.265-304.


[21] M.D. Hayat, et al., Suitability of PEG/PMMA-based metal injection moulding feedstock: an experimental study. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2015. 80(9-12): pp.1665-1671.


[22] G. Thavanayagam, et al., Analysis of rheological behavior of titanium feedstocks formulated with a water-soluble binder system for powder injection moulding. Powder Technology, 2015. 269: pp.227-232.


[23] M. D. Hayat & P. Cao (2016). A new lubricant based binder system for feedstock formulation from HDH-Ti powder. Advanced Powder Technology, 1(27), 255-261.


Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.