Joint Effect of Steel Addition and Press-and-Sinter on the Properties of Low-Cost PM Ti Alloys


Article Preview

Cheap alloying elements and creative processing techniques are a way forward to open up more industrial opportunities for Ti in sectors where it is not extensively applied yet, rather than in aerospace and biomedical applications. This study focuses on understanding the joint effect of using a commercial steel powder to add Fe to pure Ti and its processing by press-and-sinter on the behaviour of low-cost PM Ti alloys. It is found that the calibrated addition of steel permits to develop new low-cost Fe-bearing Ti alloys that can satisfactorily be produced using the blending elemental PM approach. Densification of the samples and homogenization of the chemical composition are enhanced by the high diffusivity of Fe. The low-cost α+β alloys reach comparable physical and mechanical properties to those of wrought-equivalent PM Ti alloys, such as Ti-6Al-4V, and are therefore promising candidates for load-bearing lightweight products.



Edited by:

Huiping Tang, Ma Qian, Yong Liu, Peng Cao and Gang Chen




L. Bolzoni et al., "Joint Effect of Steel Addition and Press-and-Sinter on the Properties of Low-Cost PM Ti Alloys", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 770, pp. 248-254, 2018

Online since:

May 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] Polmear IJ, Light Alloys. From Traditional Alloys to Nanocrystals. 4th ed., 2006: Butterworth-Heinemann, UK.

[2] Leyens C, Peters M, Titanium and Titanium Alloys. Fundamentals and Applications, 2003, Köln, Germany: Wiley-VCH.

[3] Joshi VA, Titanium Alloys: An Atlas of Structures and Fracture Features. 2006: Taylor & Francis.

[4] Jaffee RI, The Physical Metallurgy of Titanium Alloys. Progress in Metal Physics, 1958. 7: pp.65-163.

[5] Bolzoni L, Ruiz-Navas EM, Gordo E, Powder Metallurgy CP-Ti Performances: Hydride-dehydride vs. sponge. Materials and Design, 2014. 60: pp.226-232.


[6] Murray JL, Phase Diagrams of Binary Titanium Alloys. 1st ed. Monograph Series on Alloy Phase Diagrams. 1987: ASM International.

[7] Lütjering G, Williams JC, Titanium: Engineering Materials and Processes. 1st ed., 2003, Manchester, UK: Springer.

[8] Froes FH, Gungor MN, Imam MA, Cost-affordable Titanium: The Component Fabrication Perspective. JOM, 2007. 59(6): pp.28-31.


[9] Chen B-Y, Hwang K-S, Ng K-L, Effect of Cooling Process on the α Phase Formation and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Ti-Fe Alloys. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2011. 528(13-14): pp.4556-4563.


[10] Savvakin DG et al., Effect of Iron Content on Sintering Behavior of Ti-V-Fe-Al Near-β Titanium Alloy. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2012. 43(2): pp.716-723.


[11] Bolzoni L et al., Study of the Properties of Low-cost Powder Metallurgy Titanium Alloys by 430 Stainless Steel Addition. Materials and Design, 2014. 60: pp.628-636.


[12] Molchanova K, Phase Diagrams of Titanium Alloys. Translation of Atlas Diagram Sostoyaniya Titanovyk Splavov), Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1965: p.154.

[13] Boyer R, Welsch G, Collings EW, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys. ASM International. 1998: Ohio, USA.

[14] Nakajima H, Yusa K, Kondo Y, Diffusion of Iron in a Diluted [Alpha]-Ti-Fe Alloy. Scripta Materialia, 1996. 34(2): pp.249-253.


[15] Nakajima H, Ohshida S, Nonaka K, et al., Diffusion of Iron in [Beta] Ti-Fe Alloys. Scripta Materialia, 1996. 34(6): pp.949-953.


[16] Bolzoni L et al., Mechanical Behaviour of Pressed and Sintered CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloy Obtained from Master Alloy Addition Powder. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2013. 20: pp.149-161.


[17] Bolzoni L, Ruiz-Navas EM, Gordo E, Feasibility Study of the Production of Biomedical Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Powder Metallurgy. Materials Science and Engineering C, 2015.49:pp.400-407.


[18] German RM, Powder Metallurgy Science. 2nd ed., 1994, Princeton, USA: MPIF - Metal Powder Industries Federation.

[19] Ivasishin OM, Cost-effective Manufacturing of Titanium Parts with Powder Metallurgy Approach. Materials Forum 2005. 29: pp.1-8.

[20] Froes FH et al. Cost-effective Synthesis of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Components via the Blended Elemental P/M Approach. Symposium on TMS Symposium on High Performance Metallic Materials for Cost Sensitive Applications. 2002. Seattle, WA.