Mechanical Alloying of Ti-Based Materials


Article Preview

Mechanical alloying (MA) is a simple and versatile dry powder processing technique that has been used for the manufacture of both equilibrium and metastable phases of commercially useful and scientifically interesting materials. It owes its origin to an industry need to develop a nickel-based super alloy for gas turbine applications that had both oxide dispersion strengthening and precipitation hardening. This far-from equilibrium powder metallurgy processing technique involves fracturing, welding and re-welding of powder particles in a High Energy Ball Mill (HEBM). MA is an economically viable process with important technical advantages. Its utmost advantage is in the synthesis of novel alloys, e.g., alloying of ordinarily immiscible elements, that is not possible by any other technique. As MA is a completely solid-state processing technique, the limitations imposed by phase diagrams do not apply to it. The MA process is capable of producing different types of metastable effects in a variety of alloy systems. Some of the metastable effects achieved by MA are solid solution formation and amorphisation. MA has the possibility of producing superior and enhanced materials than those produces by conventional methods. In this work a review of MA and its present and potential applications for Ti-based materials are presented.



Edited by:

Huiping Tang, Ma Qian, Yong Liu, Peng Cao and Gang Chen




H. Chikwanda and L. Mahlatji, "Mechanical Alloying of Ti-Based Materials", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 770, pp. 95-105, 2018

Online since:

May 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, Practical ODS Alloys, Materials Science and Engineering A, 223 (1997)64-77.

[2] Suryanarayana C. Mechanical alloying and milling, Progress in Materials Science 46 (2001) 1-184.

[3] Carl C. Koch, Ronald O. Scattergod etal , Nanostructured materials by mechanical alloying: new results on property enhancement, J Mater Sci (2010) 45: 4725-4732.

[4] Suryanarayana C (2004) Mechanical alloying and milling. Marcel Dekker, New York Chap 13.

[5] Koch CC (1993) Nano Struct Mater 2:109.

[6] Benjamin JS (1970) Metall Trans 1:2943.

[7] Koch CC, Cavin OB, McKamey CG, Scarbrough JO (1983) Appl Phys Lett 43:1017.

[8] C Suryanarayana et al., The science and technology of mechanical alloying, Materials Science and Engineering A304-306 (2001) 151-158.

[9] C Suryanarayana, Recent developments in mechanical alloys, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 18 (2008) 203-211.

[10] J.S Benjamin, Mechanical Alloying- A perspective, Metal Powder Report, Vol 45., Issue 2, (1990) pp.122-127.

[11] Benjamin, J.S. (1976) Mechanical Alloying. Scientific American, 234, 40-49.

[12] R M Davis, and CC Koch, Mechanical alloying of brittle components: Silicon and germanium, Scripta Metallurgica, Volume 21, Issue 3, March 1987, Pages 305-310.


[13] C Suryanarayana, Mechanical alloying and Milling, Progress in Material Science 46 (2001) 1-184.

[14] C Suryanarayana, Mechanical Alloying of Advanced materials, Powder Materials: Current Research and Industrial Practices III, MS&T (2003).

[15] JR Groza, In: Non-equilibrium processing of materials, ed by C Suryanarayana (Pergamon, Oxford, Uk, 1999) p.347.

[16] J.R Groza, In: Nanostructured Materials: Processing, Properties, and Applications, ed. C.C. Koch, second edition (William Andrew Publ. Co., New York, 2007), p.173.

[17] C Suryanarayan and F H Froes, Mechanical alloying of titanium-base alloys, Adv. Mater. 5. No. 2 (1993).

[18] R Sundaresan, F. H. Froes, Key Eng. Mater. Muter. 1989. 29-31, 199.

[19] C. C. Koch, in Processing of Metals and Alloys. (Ed.: R. W. Cahn), Vol. 15, of Materials Science and Technology - A Comprehensive Treatment. VCH, Weinheim 1991, Ch. 5, p.193.

[20] C. C. Koch, 0 B. Carvin. C. G McKamey. J. 0. Scarbrough, Applied Physics Letter, 1983. 43, 1017.

[21] B. S. Murty, M. D. Naik. S. Ranganathan. M. Mohan Rao, Mater. Forum (1992) 16, 19.

[22] R. Watanabe, H. Hashimoto, Y-H. Park. In Advances in Powder Metallurgy (1991) (Eds.: L. F. Pease, 111, R. J. Sansoucy) MPIF. Princeton, NJ 1991, p.119.

[23] HKDH Bhadeshia, Mechanically Alloyed Metals, (2000) Proceedings RMS vol. 35/2.

[24] C. Suryanarayana and F.H. Froes, Production of nanostructure titanium-based alloys by mechanical alloying, Nano structured Materials Vol.1. pp.191-196, (1992).