Applied Engineering, Materials and Mechanics II

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Authors: Ilya A. Morozov, Anton Y. Beliaev, Roman I. Izyumov
Abstract: Stiff coating on the phase-separated soft polyurethane substrate under the compression deformation is investigated by the finite element modeling (FEM). External strain leads to the wrinkling of layer surface, which is characterized by a set of wavelengths and amplitudes. The influence of the thickness and stiffness of the layer, elastic modulus of the substrate on the structural-mechanical properties of the deformed surface is studied. The results of the model are in good accordance with the experiment (plasma immersion ion impanation of nitrogen ions into the polyurethane substrate) and allowed to estimate the modulus of the coating and the deformation of the surface.
Authors: Jalupak Rattanakot, Pranut Potiyaraj
Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is an interesting material as an environmentally-friendly replacement of petroleum-based polymers. However, some properties need improvements in order to commercially utilized PLA. In this work, graphene is used as a reinforcing filler and poly(vinyl alcohol) is used as a carrier to enhance dispersion of graphene in PLA matrix. The addition of graphene aims at improving the mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The functional groups of graphene were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical property testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The thermal properties were measured through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As a result, the Young’s modulus and the thermal properties of PLA composites increased as the amount of graphene in the composites increased due to improved dispersion of graphene in PLA matrix.
Authors: I.V. Popov
Abstract: The transition from the glass to the highly elastic state in polydiethylsiloxane (PDES) is not reflected on the temperature dependences of the relative permittivity, the dielectric loss tangent, and the specific volumetric electrical conductivity. But, the peak of the current of thermostimulated depolarization (TSD) is fixed in the temperature range of the transition to the highly elastic state. The peak of the TSD current at T ~ 130K indicates a continuous amorphous phase formation in the experimental conditions. The maximum value of the TSD current directly depends on the content of the amorphous phase in the polymer. The cooling of the polymer in an electric field reduces the magnitude of the peak. Exposure in the mesophase leads to an almost complete absence of thermopolarization effects near the glass transition temperature. This peak of the TSD current in the absence of preliminary polarization is characteristic, presumably, only for flexible-chain polymers where structural units have pyroelectric properties. Under certain conditions, PDES demonstrates itself as an active dielectric in the temperature range of 90 - 180K.
Authors: Auttapol Mongkolvai, Saowaroj Chuayjuljit, Phasawat Chaiwutthinan, Amnouy Larpkasemsuk, Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud
Abstract: This study aimed to improve the toughness property of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by incorporating epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), an elastomeric material and silica nanoparticle (nSiO2), a spherical inorganic nanofiller. ENR with 30mol% epoxidation (ENR 30) was first prepared via in situ epoxidation of natural rubber by performic acid generated from the reaction between formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the latex stage. The PLA was melt blended with three weight percentages (10, 20 and 30wt%) of ENR in an internal mixer, followed by a compression molding. The effects of ENR loadings on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the blends were first investigated. It was found that the addition of ENR 30 increased the toughness property of the blends. The blend at 20wt% ENR 30 exhibited the highest impact strength and elongation at break, and so was selected for preparing nanocomposites with three loadings (1, 2 and 3 parts per hundred of resins) of nano-silica (nSiO2). The results showed that all PLA/ENR 30/nSiO2 nanocomposites exhibited higher impact strength and thermal stability than the neat 80/20 PLA/ENR 30 blend.
Authors: Sung Yeon Hwang, Dong Yeop X. Oh, Je Young Park
Abstract: In this study, high molecular weight (HMW) poly (l-lactic acid)s (PLLAs) were synthesized by direct polycondensation using organic acid catalysts alone in a nitrogen-controlled environment. The melting point and enthalpy of the pre-polymer produced by melt polycondensation increased as molecular weight grew during solid-state polycondensation. It was observed that the nitrogen-controlled external environment had lower molecular weight than air, but the low molecular weight tail was significantly reduced, as indicated by gel permeation chromatography. This is because it inhibited the reverse reaction by preventing the penetration of water inside the reactor. Also, the control of moisture improved the color of PLLA. The amount of organic acid catalyst used was 1 wt%, which was favorable for achieving HMW. Both p-toluenesulfonic acid and 4-ethylbenzenesulfonic acid are examples of organic acids that were able to produce HMW PLLA.
Authors: Chang Yong Song, Doo Yeoun Cho
Abstract: LNG carrier is purposed to transport a liquefied LNG cargo which is reduced to 1/600 of volume in temperature condition of -163°C. In the context of structural performance on LNG cargo hold, the mechanical and thermal behaviors of insulation material under cryogenic temperature are considered as one of the critical factors for the hold design. This paper deals with the thermal deformation and the compressive strength of the reinforced polyurethane foam (RPUF) adapted for the insulation material of membrane type LNG carrier via both material tests and numerical simulations realizing the cryogenic condition. The material tests related to the thermal deformation are carried out to investigate the characteristics for thermal transfer on the actual RPUF specimen. The heat transfer simulations based on finite element analysis (FEA) are carried out using forced convection theory. The results of heat transfer analyses are compared to the material test results. Reasonable cryogenic conditions on RPUF are reviewed from both the analyses and the test results. In the regard of static material strength for the RPUF, the compressive material tests are carried out. The cryogenic temperature effect on the compressive strength of RPUF is evaluated by comparing to the room temperature material test results. From the compressive material tests, the effect of temperature on the ultimate compressive strength is investigated with variation of elongation.
Authors: Achmad Chafidz, Venitalitya Augustia, Ariany Zulkania, Asmanto Subagyo, Mujtahid Kaavessina, Muhammad Rizal
Abstract: In the recent years, the trend of using renewable source (green) fillers in the composites fabrication is increasing. One of these green fillers is natural fibers, which referred to the plant fibers, such as date palm fiber (DPF). In the present work, high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/DPF composites have been prepared. Four different DPF loadings were used (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 wt%) to prepare the composites. The effect of DPF loadings on the melt rheological behavior of the HDPE/DPF composites were studied. The melt rheological test results showed that both of storage modulus (Gʹ) and loss modulus (Gʺ) increased with the increase of DPF loadings. Additionally, the Han plot showed an upward shift from neat HDPE (i.e. DFC-0) to DFC-20, which indicated that the melt rheological properties changed with the increase of DPF loadings. The complex viscosity |h*| of the composites samples also increased with the increase of DPF loadings. The increased was more significant at higher DPF loadings (i.e. DFC-20). Meanwhile, the Carreau-Yasuda model was found to be well fitted with the experimental data.
Authors: Achmad Chafidz, Umi Rofiqah, Tintin Mutiara, Muhammad Rizal, Mujtahid Kaavessina, Dhoni Hartanto
Abstract: In the present work, high density polyethylene (HDPE)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber composites with four different PVA fiber loadings (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 wt%) have been prepared via melt compounding method using a twin-screw extruder. The composites were characterized for their morphology by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whereas, the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was carried out by using an oscillatory rheometer. The DMTA test was carried out under torsion mode using temperature sweep test on rectangular composites samples. The DMTA results showed that the storage modulus (G¢) of the composites were higher than that of the neat HDPE and increased with increasing PVA fiber loadings. This indicated that there was a considerable stiffness enhancement of the composites. For example, at temperature of 60°C, the increases of stiffness (i.e. storage modulus) of the composites were approximately 3, 31, and 54% for PVAC-5, 10, and 20, respectively. Whereas, at higher temperature (i.e. 120°C), the increases were about 4, 50, and 98% for PVAC-5, 10, and 20, respectively. These results indicated that even at higher temperatures, the enhancement of storage modulus of the composites was still high.
Authors: Jasmine Pongkasem, Saowaroj Chuayjuljit, Phasawat Chaiwutthinan, Amnouy Larpkasemsuk, Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud
Abstract: In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed with three weight percentages (10–30wt%) of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in an internal mixer, followed by a compression molding. According to a better combination of mechanical properties, the 90/10 (w/w) PLA/EVA was selected for preparing hybrid nanocomposites with three loadings (1, 3 and 5 parts per hundred of resin , phr) of poly(methyl methacrylate)-encapsulated nanosilica (PMMA-nSiO2). The nanolatex of PMMA-nSiO2 was synthesized via in situ differential microemulsion polymerization. The obtained PMMA-nSiO2 showed a core-shell morphology with nSiO2 as a core and PMMA as a shell, having an average diameter of 43.4nm. The influences of the EVA and PMMA-nSiO2 on the impact strength and the tensile properties of the PLA/EVA nanocomposites were studied and compared. It is found that the impact strength and the tensile properties of the 90/10 (w/w) PLA/EVA were improved with the appropriate amounts of the EVA and PMMA-nSiO2.

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