Developing High Strength-High Toughness Low Carbon Steel Using Combined V-Ti-Micro-Alloying and Different Thermo-Mechanical Treatments


Article Preview

This work aims at designing and developing low carbon steel alloys to meet the high tensile strength, high ductility and high impact toughness properties. The effect of solid solution mechanism, precipitation hardening, as well as grain refinement were developed with different Manganese content (0.78-2.36wt%) combined with Vanadium(0.008-0.1wt%) and Titanium (0.002-0.072wt%) microalloying additions. The controlled thermo-mechanical treatments and chemical compositions play a big role in developing the microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties. Therefore, the studied chemical compositions were treated thermo-mechanically by two different ways of changing start and finish forging temperatures with subsequent air cooling. The first way by start forging from 1050 to 830oC and the second from 950 to730oC. The second way of forging process developed finer grain sizes and higher ultimate tensile strengths for all the studied steel alloys. In spite of finer grain sizes, the impact toughness value was lower in the second regime due to detrimental influence of precipitation strengthening in the ferrite. A combination of 544 MPa yield strength, 615 MPa ultimate tensile strength, 20% elongation and 138 Joule impact toughness has been attained.



Edited by:

Mohsen Abdel-Naeim Hassan, Prof. Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Atef Hamada, Mohamed Abdel Hady Gepreel, Dr. Nagih Shaalan, Ahmed Hassanin and Dr. Koichi Nakamura




A. Hamed et al., "Developing High Strength-High Toughness Low Carbon Steel Using Combined V-Ti-Micro-Alloying and Different Thermo-Mechanical Treatments", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 786, pp. 57-64, 2018

Online since:

October 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] Halfa, H. (2014). Recent Trends in Producing Ultrafine Grained Steels. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2(September), 428–469.


[2] M.F. Mekkawy, K.El-Fawakhry, M.L. Mishreky and Mamdouh Eissa, (1990).

[3] F.Mekkawy, K.El-Fawakhry, M.L. Mishreky and Mamdouh Eissa, (1991).

[4] Show, B.K., Veerababu, R., Balamuralikrishnan, R., & Malakondaiah, G. (2010).

[5] Li, Y., Wilson, J. A., Crowther, D. N., Mitchell, P. S., Craven, A. J., & Baker, T. N. (2004).

[6] T. Akita et al.(2010). Influence of Annealing on Strength of Ultrafine Grained Low Carbon Steels by ECAP, Materials Science Forum, Vols, 638-642, p.1899-(1904).


[7] D.P. Dunne,(2010). Review: Interaction Of Precipitation With Recrystallisation And Phase Transformation In Low Alloy Steels. Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol. 26, No. 4, 410–420.


[8] F.Mekkawy, K.El-Fawakhry, M.L. Mishreky and Mamdouh Eissa (1991).

[9] BORATTO, F. et al.: Effect of Chemical Composition on Critical Temperatures of Microalloyed Steels. In:THERMEC '88. Proceedings. Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Tokyo, 1988, 383-390.

[10] ZHAO, Z. et al. (2001). A New Empirical Formula for the Bainite Upper Temperature Limit of Steel. Journal of Materials Science, 36, 5045-5056.

[11] E-112-12 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size.

[12] S. A. Khan and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia (1990). Metall. Trans. A, 21A, 859 – 875.

[13] Song, R., Ponge, D., & Raabe, D. (2005). Influence of Mn Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Grained C – Mn Steels. ISIJ International, 45(11), 1721–1726.


[14] Deng, W., Gao, X., Zhao, D., Du, L., Wu, D., & Wang, G. (2010).

[15] H. Najafi & J. Rassizadehghani (2006). Effects of vanadium and titanium on mechanical properties of low carbon as cast microalloyed steels, International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 19:6, 323-329.


[16] Zhou, J., Kang, Y., & Mao, X. (2008). Precipitation characteristic of high strength steels microalloyed with titanium produced by compact strip production. Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing, 15(4), 389–395.