X-Ray Diffraction Investigation of Electrochemically Deposited Copper
Copper layers were deposited from acidic electrolytes containing different amounts of organic additives, designed for the formation of Cu-interconnect structures. Amorphous Ni-P substrates allow to study the unbiased growth of the electrodeposits. The crystallographic texture was investigated by the determination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figures and the calculation of the orientation distribution functions. XRD results are discussed in relation to the morphologies of the electrodeposits as investigated with light optical microscopy and correlated with the process parameters during electrodeposition.
Yvonne Andersson, Eric J. Mittemeijer and Udo Welzel
K. Pantleon et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Investigation of Electrochemically Deposited Copper", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 443-444, pp. 201-204, 2004