Activated carbon fibers were prepared from stabilized PAN-based fibers by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide at different concentration. The experimental data showed variations in specific surface area, microstructure by the activated carbon fibers. Specific surface area of about 2545 m2/g was obtained in the KOH/stabilized PAN-based fiber ratio of 1:1 at 800°. An abrupt reduction of specific surface area was observed in the experiments with the ratio of 3:1 of OH/stabilized PAN-based fiber, being dissimilar with the result of KOH/fiber ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 in the similar experiments. The high concentration of KOH led to the destruction of micropore walls instead of forming mesopores.