The micron-size grain refinement of pure a-zirconium obtained with elevated temperature tensile deformation was investigated. The development of low-misorientation subboundaries caused the serration of the original grain boundaries at low strains. The final microstructure (e.g. strains > 3) was predominantly composed of fine, equiaxed “crystallites” with ⅔ of the boundaries being of very low misorientations (< 3°) and the remaining ⅓ being high angle boundaries (θ > 8°, and typically 25-35°). Discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was excluded as a possible mechanism due to the absence of newly formed grain nuclei. The bimodal distribution of the crystallite or (sub)grain boundary misorientations is inconsistent with the occurrence of continuous dynamic recrystallization and rotational recrystallization. The continual thinning of the original grains, the serration of the high angle boundaries, the bimodal misorientation distribution of misorientations, ⅔ of boundaries of very low misorientations at high strains all strongly suggest geometric dynamic recrystallization and dynamic recovery as the grain refinement and restoration mechanisms.