A new technique for investigating 3D grain growth in polycrystalline materials using white x-ray microdiffraction with micron point-to-point spatial resolution is presented. This technique utilizes focused polychromatic x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source, differential aperture depth-profiling, CCD measurements, and automated analysis of spatially-resolved Laue patterns to measure local lattice structure and orientation. 3D thermal grain growth studies of hotrolled aluminum have been initiated to demonstrate the capabilities of this method. Complete 3D grain orientation maps were obtained from a hot-rolled aluminum polycrystal. The sample was then annealed to induce grain growth, cooled to room temperature, and re-mapped to measure the thermal migration of all grain boundaries within the same volume region. Initial observations reveal significant grain growth above 360°C, involving movement of both low- and high-angle boundaries. Systematic measurements have been obtained of the as-rolled grain structure and of the microstructural evolution after annealing at successively higher temperatures. Small second-phase precipitates have been identified. Such measurements will provide the detailed 3D experimental link needed for testing theories and computer models of 3D grain growth in bulk materials.