Kinetics of deformation strengthening, polygonization and recrystallization processes have been studied, effects of alloying by nitrogen, combined carbon and nitrogen as well as by various other elements (Cr, Mo, Ni, Mn, V etc.) have been estimated for steels of different compositions and applications. Strain diagrams and structure state maps for the studied steels are presented. Strain diagram shape and attainable hot strength depend on the deformation conditions and basic alloying which determine strain hardening and diffusional processes of post-deformation softening. Alloying by nitrogen increases hot and cold strain hardening and retards recrystallization. Maximum strengthening obtained by cold deformation is accompanied by lowering of ductility and fracture toughness. Hence, it is applicable mainly to the austenitic steels. Nitrogen alloying enhances the austenite stability against g ® a transformation and consequently allows extending a composition range of steels which can be strengthened by cold deformation with large strains. The high-temperature thermomechanical treatment is more effective as a treatment improving a combination of mechanical properties. The schemes and regimes of thermomechanical strengthening treatments are proposed for low- and high- nitrogen containing steels of various structure classes.