Hard turning has been recognized as a substitute for abrasive-based processes not only due to its flexibility, economic benefit and environmental consciousness, but also its determinate surface integrity (surface roughness, micro hardness and residual stress), which is superior and more consistent than ground surfaces. Residual stress is of considerable industrial importance because they can affect failure by fatigue, creep or cracking. It is believed that compressive residual stresses are more favorable for fatigue life than tensile residual stresses. Hard turning generally generates compressive residual stress, which is the dominant role in determining both the variance and average value of fatigue life. This paper focus on the published data, especially C.R.Liu’s research, which address the residual stresses by hard turning in terms of experimental approaches， theoretical modeling，numerical simulation by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and the correlation with its fatigue life and performance. The potential trends and key technologies for residual stresses are predicated and discussed so as to capture the most effective approach to investigate residual stress by hard turning.