A three-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical model of ball burnishing process is developed using commercial explicit finite element code MSC. Marc. The workpiece is modeled as being elastic-plastic, while its flowstress is taken as a function of strain, strain-rate, and temperature. Temperature-dependent material properties are also considered in this analysis. The burnishing ball is considered as rigid and only heat transfer analysis is carried out for it. In the zone of the workpiece and tool contact, the Coulomb friction is taken into account. Effects of ball burnishing parameters (burnishing force, feed rate, speed, ball diameter and number of tool passes) on residual stresses are analyzed. The results show that burnishing force, ball diameter, number of passes and burnishing feed have the most significant effect on the residual stresses. However, burnishing speed seems to just produce little effect on those. Larger burnishing force, larger number of passes, smaller ball diameter and small feed rate seem to be more effective in increasing in the maximum compressive residual stress and the depth of the layer at the compressive stress state.