Reversible cutting method is a research thesis proposed to shorten processing route, decrease tool number and handling time, increase machining efficiency. There are three movement ways, i.e. reversible feed motion, reversible primary motion and reversible composite motion. Primary motion is done by workpiece, conventional or reversible feed motion is done by cutting tool in the way of reversible feed motion, e.g. turning. Cutting velocity is passed to cutting tool, clockwise or anti-clockwise cutting movement is done by cutting tool in the way of reversible primary motion, e.g. milling, shaping, drilling (spade drill), reaming. Primary and feed motions are all reversible in composite motion, e.g. turn-milling. Chip deformation and machined surface with reversible finishing is discussed. A mechanical analysis is carried out to the workpiece deformation of slender shaft turning in normal direction and reversible direction. The result has been verified by experiments. Experimental data for the range of cutting parameters tested showed that the reversible fine machining produce the compressive residual stresses at the surface, which are critical in the performance of the machined components. Experimental research indicted that the results of micro-hardness of reversible fine machining technique are smaller than that of general fine machining show that decreased plastic deformation of the surface layer and work-hardening. It can be adopted such planning which rough machining during advance stroke and fine machining during return stroke in machining process.