Numerical Simulation and Experimental Evidence for Surface Modification by High Current Pulsed Electron Beam
The simulation of the temperature reveals an ultra high heating/cooling rates in the order of 108~109 K/s and melted layer thickness micrometers in depth. A temperature-induced dynamic thermal stress fields can then generate three principal stress, the quasi-static stress, the thermoelastic stress, and the shock stress, the latter two being stress waves. The thermoelastic stress wave has small amplitudes less than 0.1 MPa. The shock stress wave however is a typical nonlinear wave, several hundreds of MPa in amplitude, much stronger than the thermoelastic stress wave, and has a strong impact on materials structure and properties far beyond the heat-affected zone. The maximum compressive quasi-static stress in the surface layer in aluminum reaches several hundreds of MPa, which easily induces surface deformation in metallic materials.
Z.Y. Zhong, H. Saka, T.H. Kim, E.A. Holm, Y.F. Han and X.S. Xie
Y. Qin et al., "Numerical Simulation and Experimental Evidence for Surface Modification by High Current Pulsed Electron Beam", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 475-479, pp. 3673-3676, 2005