Microstructure and texture evolution in the AZ31 Mg alloy subject to equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) have been investigated and correlated with the mechanical properties. When AZ31 Mg alloy was ECAPed up to 8 passes following the route Bc, grain refinement occurred effectively. Texture was also changed during ECAP. The original fiber texture of the extruded AZ31 Mg alloy changed to a new texture component of ] 1 3 2 5 )[ 1 1 01 ( , and the texture of ] 1 3 2 5 )[ 1 1 01 ( orientation was rotated to ] 0 2 5 7 )[ 6 4 13 ( orientation after 6-pass ECAP process. The variation of the strength with the pass number was explained by the texture and grain size. The strength data of AZ31 Mg alloys followed the standard Hall-Petch relationship when the similar texture was retained during the ECAP process. Otherwise the effect of texture on strength was dominant over the strengthening due to grain refinement.