Induction surface hardening creates very desirable residual stresses in the hardened surface layer. Residual stresses are always of a compressive nature and are usually present to the depth of the induction-hardened layer. By the appropriate selection of grinding wheel and grinding conditions and taking into account the physical and mechanical properties of the workpiece material very favourable compressive residual stresses in the hardened surface layer can be retained. How is it possible to assure a desirable surface and surface layer quality after induction hardening and fine grinding? Finding an answer to this question requires a very good knowledge of the process of grinding on the micro-level as well as knowledge of mechanical and heat effects acting on the layer of the workpiece including the type and condition of the grinding wheel. An allinclusive consideration of the numerous influences of the kind and condition of the tool on the changes on the surface and in the surface layer of the workpiece in the given machining conditions is described by the term “surface integrity”.