The cyclic deformation behavior of deep rolled and polished aluminium wrought alloy AlMg4,5Mn in the temperature range 20-300°C has been investigated. Results of quasistatic tension and compression tests of untreated specimens in the temperature range 20-300°C are presented. To characterize the fatigue behavior for stress-controlled tests as a function of test temperature, s-n curves, cyclic deformations curves and mean strains as a function of number of cycles are given. The residual stress- and work hardening states near the surface of deep rolled aluminium alloy AlMg4.5Mn before and after fatigue tests were investigated by X-ray diffraction methods. The investigated AlMn4.5Mn aluminium alloy shows cyclic hardening until fracture at all stress amplitudes in stress-controlled fatigue tests at 25-150°C. With increasing temperature the deformation behavior shifts from cyclic hardening to cyclic softening. Below a certain stress amplitude at a given temperature deep rolling led to a reduction of the plastic strain amplitude as compared to the untreated state through cyclically stable near-surface work hardening as indicated by stable FWHM-values. This reduction in plastic strain amplitude is associated with enhanced fatigue lives. The effectiveness of deep rolling is governed by the cyclic and thermal stability of nearsurface work hardening rather than macroscopic compressive residual stresses. Since nearsurface work hardening is known to retard crack initiation, deep rolling is also effective in temperature- and stress ranges where macroscopic compressive residual stresses have relaxed almost completely, but where near-surface work hardening prevails. Above certain stress amplitudes and temperatures, deep rolling has no beneficial effect on the fatigue behavior of AlMg4.5Mn. This is a consequence of instable near-surface microstructures, especially instable near-surface work hardening.