In the present work we study the nanocrystalline powders of lanthanide-doped Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG, gadolinium gallium garnet) prepared using propellant synthesis. A series of GGG samples containing a number of different trivalent lanthanide ions (Tm, Er, Ho, Eu, Sm, Nd, and Pr) in different quantities (1%, 5%, 10%) were produced. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (pre- and post calcination) for phase identification and line-broadening analysis, and by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) for morphological and nanostructural investigation. Thermal behavior of the powder was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The samples have a polycrystalline porous structure. Elemental microanalysis made by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) detector attached to TEM and XRD unit-cell determinations confirmed that the lanthanides ions entered the structure of GGG. Crystallites have a high degree of disorder.