Current Research in Advanced Materials and Processes

Volume 494

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.494

Paper Title Page

Authors: J.M. Nedeljković, O.I. Mićić, S.P. Ahrenkiel, A.J. Nozik
Abstract: InP and InAs quantum rods were synthesized via the reactions of monodispersed indium droplets with phosphide or arsenide ions, respectively. In these reactions indium droplets, which do not act as a catalyst but rather as a reactant, are completely consumed. For the synthesis of InP and InAs quantum rods with a narrow size distribution, a narrow size distribution of indium particles is required because each indium droplet serves as a template to strictly limit the lateral growth of individual InP or InAs nanocrystals. Free-standing InP (130 Å diameter and 870 Å length) and InAs (180 Å diameter and 745 Å length) quantum rods without residual metallic catalyst at the rod tip were synthesized from the diluted transparent solutions of metallic indium. Both kinds of synthesized nanorods are in the strong confinement regime since the Bohr diameters of InP and InAs are 200 and 700 Å, respectively.
121
Authors: Miha Drofenik, Darja Lisjak, Darko Makovec
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles are materials of great interest because of the remarkable fundamental properties exhibited by these materials as well as their technological potential in the area of biomedicine and other areas. The technologically useful properties of magnetic nanomaterials are not limited to their structural, chemical or mechanical behaviour, but also involve the phenomena that arise from their finite size and the surface effects that dominate the magnetic behaviour of individual nanoparticles. New techniques that have been developed recently have permitted researchers to produce larger quantities of nanomaterials and characterize them better. Here, some of the most promising procedures are reported, including techniques based on hydrothermal syntheses, sol-gel syntheses, co-precipitation syntheses, mechanochemical syntheses, sonochemical syntheses, spray pyrolysis and microemulsion-assisted syntheses.
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Authors: Amelia Montone, Jasna Grbović Novaković, A. Bassetti, L. Mirenghi, P. Rotolo, Ennio Bonetti, Luca Pasquini, Marco Vittori Antisari
Abstract: The hydrogen storage performances of Mg-C nanocomposites have been studied on materials synthesized by ball milling with and without addition of an organic additive. The main purpose of this work is to study in more detail the cooperative effect observed when both graphite and benzene are added to the milled blend. In fact, when both components are added to Mg in the ball milling process, good catalyzing properties of the composite surface allow improved sorptiondesorption behavior of the synthesized material. The processed materials have been characterized by XRD to assess the details of the phase structure by Rietveld analysis, while surface features have been studied by XPS, which evidences structural modifications of both the surface Mg oxide and the graphite particles. The hydrogen desorption behavior has been correlated with the surface structure which appears to depend on the carbon to benzene ratio. Thermal stability and hydrogen desorption properties were investigated by DSC. Experimental results on nanocomposites with the same Mg to C weight ratio (70:30) show improved performances for a proper choice of carbon to benzene ratio weight (1/3), even after manipulation of the milled material in air.
137
Authors: R. Krsmanović, Stefano Polizzi, P. Canton
Abstract: In the present work we study the nanocrystalline powders of lanthanide-doped Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG, gadolinium gallium garnet) prepared using propellant synthesis. A series of GGG samples containing a number of different trivalent lanthanide ions (Tm, Er, Ho, Eu, Sm, Nd, and Pr) in different quantities (1%, 5%, 10%) were produced. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (pre- and post calcination) for phase identification and line-broadening analysis, and by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) for morphological and nanostructural investigation. Thermal behavior of the powder was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The samples have a polycrystalline porous structure. Elemental microanalysis made by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) detector attached to TEM and XRD unit-cell determinations confirmed that the lanthanides ions entered the structure of GGG. Crystallites have a high degree of disorder.
143
Authors: Lydia Mančić, S. Grgurić-Šipka, V.M. Djinović, Z. Marinković, T. Sabo, O. Milošević
Abstract: Pt/Ru-doped ZnO nanophase particles were synthesized using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Particles were obtained through decomposition of zinc nitrate and newly developed Pt(IV) and Ru(III) complexes. The particle morphology, phase composition and chemical structure were revealed in accordance to various analysis methods (XRD, DSC, SEM/EDS, TEM) and discussed in terms of precursor chemistry and process parameters. The shape of DSC curves, indicating two exothermic effects above 6000C in both ZnO:Ru and ZnO:Pt, gave an indication of irreversible structural changes and high reactivity of as-prepared powders. The hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO phase was revealed in both powdered samples. Small content of an intermediate Zn5(NO3)2(OH)8·2H2O and cubic Zn2PtO4 phase were detected in the Pt-doped ZnO particles. Structural refinements, performed by Koalariet-XFit, suggest the composite internal particle structure composed of primary particles sized less than 100 nm. The estimated values for the unit cell parameters and Zn-O bond lengths imply noble metal ions incorporation into ZnO matrix interstitially, probably in octahedral interstitial environment. It has been shown that different particle growing morphologies (either spheroidally or pyramidally shaped) were influenced by the precursor chemistry, processing parameters and the presence of noble metal ions. Among the many parameters, attaining of the particle shape uniformity and homogeneous distribution of the noble metal cations in as-prepared particles are regarded as the most important factors for dominating microstructure evolution.
149
Authors: V. Uskoković, Darko Makovec, Miha Drofenik
Abstract: Nanostructured lanthanum-strontium manganites have been synthesized using two different co-precipitation approaches, one in bulk solution, and the other in reverse micelles of CTAB/1-hexanol/1-butanol/water microemulsion. In both cases, precursor cations were precipitated by alkali precipitating agents. The properties of the material synthesized by using these two methods were compared in order to reveal potential advantages of microemulsion-assisted approach. The influence of the annealing conditions on the properties of synthesized manganites was investigated by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements.
155
Authors: I. Ban, Miha Drofenik, Darko Makovec
Abstract: A water-in-oil microemulsion method was used for the preparation of silica-coated permalloy (Ni0.80Fe0.20) nanoparticles. The particles were prepared by the reduction of their salts with sodium borohydride NaBH4 in a cationic water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion of water/cetyltrimethyl- amonium bromide (CTAB) and n-butanol/isooctane at 25oC. According to the TEM and x-ray diffraction analyses, the synthesized material was in the form of nanoparticles. The magnetization of the silica-coated nanoparticles was lower than that of the uncoated particles, reflecting the influence of the nonmagnetic silica surface layer on the magnetization.
161
Authors: R. Steinhausen, H.Th. Langhammer, A.Z. Kouvatov, C. Pientschke, Horst Beige, H.-P. Abicht
Abstract: In the field of applications of piezoelectric materials properties, functional gradient materials (FGM) are suitable for bending devices due to reduced internal mechanical stresses and lower production costs as well as for ultrasonic transducers because of their increased band width. This paper reports both on preparation, poling, characterization of FGM actuators, and on the description of suitable models of the poling and the bending processes. The calculations of the bending behavior show that the deflection at the end of the cantilever with a continuous gradient still reaches 2/3 of the deflection of a bimorph, whereas the maximum stress goes to zero, which is the main advantage of FGM compared to the commonly used bimorph devices. As a model system with well-defined electromechanical and dielectric properties of the homogeneous components the solid solution of BaTi1-xSnxO3 (BTS) with 0.075 £ x £ 0.15 was chosen. The FGMs approximated by a layered system with a one-dimensional gradient of the Sn-content were prepared both by successive uniaxial powder pressing and by tape casting with the doctor blade method. The chemical gradient was transformed into a gradient of the piezoelectric properties by a poling process. Several models were developed for the description of the non-trivial problem of the poling process in layered systems. The calculated data were compared with experimental results. It was shown that the very small electrical conductivity of the single layers generally cannot be neglected during the poling process and must be incorporated into more sophisticated models. The bending properties of several poled BTS structures with up to 4 layers were measured and discussed.
167
Authors: B. Matović, Snezana Bošković, Ljiljana Živković, M.D. Vlajić, Vladimir D. Krstić
Abstract: This paper deals with Gd-doped ceria solid solutions: Ce1−XGdXO2−d with "x" ranging from 0 to 0.2. Four different powders were synthesized by modified glycine nitrate procedure with very precise stoichiometry according to tailored composition. The method was modified by decreasing glycine/nitrate ratio to 0.5. All obtained solid solutions exhibit a fluorite-type crystal structure with composition dependent lattice parameters. The variation of the lattice parameter was studied and correlated with the equation describing the ion-packing model. It has been found that the change of lattice parameter versus Gd concentration obeys Vegard's rule very well. Results also show that all powders are nanometric in size. The average size of Ce1−XGdXO2−d particles is about 20 nm.
175
Authors: M. Veljković, O. Nešković, A. Djerić, S. Veličković, V. Šipka
Abstract: A growing number of recent publications on clusters reflect a tremendous interest in these particles. These studies reveal new fundamental physical and chemical aspects of matter. Clusters are called the fifth state of matter: liquid, solid, cluster, gas and plasma. In this work, a carbon cluster was generated by a spark cluster source and detected by single focusing mass spectrometer in situ. We examined the effects of cluster source parameters on the generation of carbon cluster and report our initial results. This method should be useful for studying the mechanism of fullerene formation. In the case when carbon clusters generated in plasma arc are carried by the Ar or H2 gas flow downstream through a vacuum chamber to the ion source of mass spectrometer, we obtained a small binary carbon cluster C28H4 (hydrogenated fullerene). The empty fullerene is tetravalent and strongly binds four hydrogen atoms, which significantly weakens two different sets of bonds and leads to an open-shell electronic structure. Conclusion is that endohedral C28H4 are hypervalent. We have demonstrated how in situ mass spectrometry has led to the rapid development of an important branch of synthetic fullerene chemistry that has yielded many new small fullerenes and related derivatives with novel structures and properties. The impact of mass spectrometry on the synthesis of fullerene derivatives is the subject of this paper. Significantly, a large fraction of products could be condensed on a specially designed collection plate, which allows further spectroscopic characterization of new derivatives.
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