This study is aimed at investigating the deformation characteristics and mechanisms of wood and its deformation characteristics using long distance microscope and CCD-camera. The structures of actual wood can be treated as micro cell structure and layer one. Several deformation characteristics were obtained in compression process. Characteristics of the deformation were investigated experimentally. The following results were obtained for the deformation of wood. (1) The deformation modes of cell structures and the locations where deformation is generated were clarified. (2) The characteristics of the compression of layered structures were clarified. (3) The deformation of wood was largely affected by structural features such as the grain, distribution of tree rings, and compression direction. The results obtained are useful in carrying out effective compaction of wood.