Sputter-Deposited Cr as an Alternative to Electroplated Cr
Since the hexavalent chromium used in chromium electroplating was found to cause cancer in human body, alternative deposition techniques have been widely investigated. Sputter deposition of chromium (Cr) as a deposition technique for replacing electroplating was studied. Effects of RF-power, substrate temperature on the deposition rate, corrosion-resistance, hardness and adhesion strength were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the structure and the compositions of the films. The hardnesses of the films were measured by using a nanoindenter. The microstructures of the films were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The deposition rate and hardness of the sputter-deposited Cr film tend to increase with the increasing RF-power and substrate temperature of the sputtering process. Both the hardness and adhesion strength of the sputter-deposited chromium film was found to be higher than those of the electroplated chromium film.
Hyung Sun Kim, Yu Bao Li and Soo Wohn Lee
C. M. Lee et al., "Sputter-Deposited Cr as an Alternative to Electroplated Cr", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 510-511, pp. 674-677, 2006