Iron Oxide and Oxide-Hydroxide Nanoparticles in Organic-Inorganic Matrices
Nanometric ferrihydrite, maghemite and magnetite particles formed within an organicinorganic hybrid matrix were obtained by the sol-gel process. In contrast to precipitation techniques, sol-gel process appears as suitable way to achieve size-controlled nanoscopic magnetic particles anchored in a hybrid structure. The hybrid matrix here reported, named di-ureasil, is composed of poly(oxyethylene) chains grafted to siloxane groups by means of urea cross-linkages. The formation of ferrihydrite particles was achieved incorporating iron nitrate during the sol-gel process, at low pH. The formation of maghemite takes place after the incorporation of a mixture of Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions and treatment with an ammonia solution, after the sol-gel process. Magnetite nanoparticles are formed after the incorporation of Fe2+ ions and treatment with ammonia at 80°C. The AC magnetic susceptibility shows thermal irreversibility with a blocking temperature TB≈13K and ≈25K depending on frequency for the ferrihydrite and maghemite particles, respectively. The magnetite nanoparticles are blocked at room temperature. Above the irreversibility the magnetization of ferrihydrite and maghemite follows a Langevin function modified with a linear term, as found in antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic particles.
Paula Maria Vilarinho
N. J. O. Silva et al., "Iron Oxide and Oxide-Hydroxide Nanoparticles in Organic-Inorganic Matrices", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 514-516, pp. 142-146, 2006