Defect Formation in La2Ni(M)O4+δ (M= Co, Cu): Modelling and Coulometric Titration Study
The p(O2)-T- diagrams of La2Ni1-xMxO4+ (M=Co and Cu, x= 0-0.20), determined by the coulometric titration technique at 923-1223 K in the oxygen partial pressure range 10-4 to 0.6 atm, can be adequately described by equilibrium processes of oxygen intercalation into the rock-salt type layers and hole localization on B-site cations forming 3+ oxidation states. For the hole activity, a non-ideal solution model taking into account the repulsion of p-type electronic charge carriers can be used. The electrostatic repulsion excludes occupation of nearest neighboring sites and leads to splitting of the energy levels for more distant sites. The affinity of Ni and Cu cations with respect to the hole localization is similar and cannot be statistically separated analyzing the oxygen nonstoichiometry data only. On the contrary, cobalt cations tend to remain in the trivalent state and Co3+ should be treated as a separate type of charged point defect. Oxygen vacancies formed in the perovskite-like layers due to intrinsic Frenkel disorder have no essential effect on the oxygen thermodynamics. As expected, the thermodynamic functions governing the intercalation-related processes are independent of defect concentrations.
Paula Maria Vilarinho
E.N. Naumovich et al., "Defect Formation in La2Ni(M)O4+δ (M= Co, Cu): Modelling and Coulometric Titration Study", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 514-516, pp. 397-401, 2006