The quality of a mechanical component such as its geometrical accuracy stability and fatigue life are significantly affected by the surface integrity generated by machining process. Residual stresses are a major part of the mechanical state of a machined layer and they can be beneficial or detrimental depending of their nature and magnitude. This study concerns phase analysis and residual stress profile characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and microhardness profile of AISI H13 ESR mould steel, milled using carbide and CBN tools. Analysis of the cross-section of the AISI H13 ESR samples, milled using both tools, reveal a martensitic microstructure, with a very thin layer heavily deformed due to the machining process. However, no phase transformation was detected by XRD. Concerning the residual stresses, the results show that they are predominantly compressive at the samples surface. However, depending of the cutting tools, the in-depth residual stresses profiles present different evolutions. This difference in the in-depth residual stresses profiles between the two kind of cutting tools is attributed to the different cutting tool parameters, including the tool geometry.