Surface Morphology of Anatase TiO2 Thin Film by Sol-Gel Method


Article Preview

Sol-gel processing route has been used for the production of thin films from titanium isopropoxide (TIP). The surface properties and statistics results have been characterized by AFM; the coating process has been examined using SEM and optical microscope. The structure phase of TiO2 has been analyzed by XRD; the composition of TiO2 has been estimated through EDS; the thickness of film has been measured by polarized microscope in an interferometric technique. The coating films are always crystallined in the anatase structure with circular particles in nanometer size.



Edited by:

A.K. Arof and S.A. Hashim Ali




N. Al-Jufairi, "Surface Morphology of Anatase TiO2 Thin Film by Sol-Gel Method", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 517, pp. 135-140, 2006

Online since:

June 2006





[1] N. Bityurin, L. Znaidi & A. Kanaev: Chemical Physics Letters 374 (2003), pp.95-99.

[2] J. Livage & C. Sanchez, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145 (1992), p.11.

[3] Sanchez, G.J. de.A.A. Soler-Illia, F. Ribot, T. Lalot, C. R. Mayer & V. Cabuil: Chem. Mater. 3 (2001), p.3061.

[4] N. Al-Jufairi & A. Nabok: PREP., 4-16 April 41-42. Exeter, UK. (2003).

[5] B. O'Regan & M. Gratzel: Nature 353 (1991), pp.737-40.

[6] Li Yongxiang, Hurgen Jurgen, Schaffrath Winfried, Otschik Peter, Haarer Dietrich., Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 56 (1999), pp.167-174.


[7] M. Peneza, C. Martucci, V. I. Anisimkin & L. Vasanelli: Mater. Sci. Forum 203 (1996), p.137.

[8] L. Znaidi, G.J.A.A. Soler-Illia, S. Benyahia, C. Sanchez & A. V. Kanaev: Thin Solid Films 428 (2003), pp.257-262.


[9] J. C. Brinker & W. G. Scherer: Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing, Academic Press, Inc. New York. (1990).

[10] Fan, B. McQuillin, D.D.C. Bradley, Whitelegg and A.B. Seddon: Chemical Physics Letters 347 (2001), pp.325-330.


[11] M. Takahashi, K. Mita & H. Toyoki: J. Mater. Sci. �24��1989), pp.243-246.

[12] N. Al-Jufairi: 1- The 3 rd Magneto Electronic International Symposium, (MAGEL-3), 15-19 June (2004) Vol. 1. La Rochelle, France.

[13] D. Mardare and G. I. Rusu: Materials Science and Engineering B75 (2000) 68-71.

[14] A. Karthikeyan & Almeida: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 274 (2000) 169-174.

[15] Jia YU., Zhao guo., Zhang Jian., Qing Zhao., Journal of Wuhan University of Technology Mater. Sci. Ed., V. 16 (2001) 2.

[16] N. Al-Jufairi: 2- The 3 rd Magneto Electronic International Symposium, (MAGEL-3), 15-19 June (2004) Vol. 2. La Rochelle, France.

[17] Fan: PhD. Thesis, Sol-Gel material for photoelectronic device applications. University of Sheffield (2001).