Characteristics of Indium Oxide Rod-Like Structures Synthesized on Sapphire Substrates
In2O3 materials consisting of dense arrays of vertically aligned rod-like structures were deposited on sapphire substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using triethylindium (TEI) and oxygen as precursors at a substrate temperature of 350 oC. The rod-like structure with a triangular cross section had a cubic structure, exhibiting preferred crystallographic orientation in the  direction. The photoluminescence spectra of In2O3 structures under excitation at 325 nm revealed a visible emission.
Dragan P. Uskokovic, Slobodan K. Milonjic and Dejan I. Rakovic
H. W. Kim et al., "Characteristics of Indium Oxide Rod-Like Structures Synthesized on Sapphire Substrates", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 518, pp. 143-148, 2006