An Analysis on the Forming Load of AA 2024 Aluminium Alloy in Combined and Sequence Operation Process


Article Preview

This paper is concerned with the analysis of the forming load characteristics of a forward-backward can extrusion in both combined and sequence operation. A commercially available finite element program, which is coded in the rigid-plastic finite element method, has been employed to investigate the forming load characteristics. AA 2024 aluminum alloy is selected as a model material. The analysis in the present study is extended to the selection of press frame capacity for producing efficiently final product at low cost. The possible extrusion processes to shape a forward-backward can component with different outer diameters are categorized to estimate quantitatively the force requirement for forming forward-backward can part, forming energy, and maximum pressure exerted on the die-material interfaces, respectively. The categorized processes are composed of combined and/or some basic extrusion processes such as sequence operation. Based on the simulation results about forming load characteristics, the frame capacity of a mechanical press of crank-drive type suitable for a selected process could be determined along with securing the load capacity and with considering productivity. In addition, it is suggested that different load capacities be selected for different dimensions of a part such as wall thickness in forward direction and etc. It is concluded quantitatively from the simulation results that the combined operation is superior to sequence operation in terms of relatively low forming load and thus it leads to low cost for forming equipments. However, it is also known from the simulation results that the precise control of dimensional accuracy is not so easy in combined operation. The results in this paper could be a good reference for analysis of forming process for complex parts and selection of proper frame capacity of a mechanical press to achieve low production cost and thus high productivity.



Materials Science Forum (Volumes 519-521)

Edited by:

W.J. Poole, M.A. Wells and D.J. Lloyd




B. B. Hwang et al., "An Analysis on the Forming Load of AA 2024 Aluminium Alloy in Combined and Sequence Operation Process", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 519-521, pp. 949-954, 2006

Online since:

July 2006




[1] W. Osen: Adv. Tech. of Plasticity Vol. 1 (1987), p.575.

[2] K. Osakada, X. Wang, S. Hanami: J. of Mat. Proc. Tech 2001, Vol. 71, p.105.

[3] H.H. Lin, K. Kudo: Proc. 4th ICTP (Beijing, 1993), p.693.

[4] J.A. Schey: Metal Deformation Processes Friction and Lubrication (Marcel Dekker, N.Y. 1970).

[5] Air Force Material Laboratory: Forming Equipment, materials and practices (Metal and Ceramics Information Center, 1973), p.164.

[6] K. A. Na: Press Handbook, Kijun Yoengusa, (1989), p.175.

[7] T. Huziyoshi: Die and Moulding (Daily Technology Press, Tokyo, Japan 1989).