Laser shock peening is a very effective mechanical surface treatment to enhance the fatigue behaviour of highly stressed components. In this work the effect of different laser shock peening conditions on the residual stress depth profile and fatigue behaviour without any sacrificial coating layer is investigated for two high strength titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Timetal LCB. The results show that the optimization of peening conditions is crucial to obtain excellent fatigue properties. Especially, power density, spot size and coverage severely influence the residual stress profile of laser shock peened Ti-6Al-4V and Timetal LCB specimens. For both alloys, subsurface as well as surface compressive residual stress peaks can be obtained by varying the peening conditions. In general, Timetal LCB exhibits steeper stress gradients than Ti-6Al-4V for identical peening conditions. The main parameters affecting the fatigue life are near-surface cold work and compressive residual stresses.