Uniaxial compression tests on hot-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy were carried out at 200°C. In order to investigate the evolution of texture during plastic deformation, cylindrical specimens were compressed to the rolling and normal directions. Experimental investigation reveals that work hardening and texture evolution are strongly dependent on the loading direction. The occurrence of deformation twinning was revealed by the observation of microtexture using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). A visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to simulate the texture evolution during the uniaxial compression. The texture evolution induced by crystallographic slip and deformation twinning can be explained by the relative activity of each deformation modes.