Cellular Structures under Impact Loading


Article Preview

This paper presents a study of the strength enhancement under impact loading of metallic cellular materials as well as sandwich panels with cellular core. It begins with a review of likely causes responsible for the strength enhancement of cellular materials. A testing method using 60mm diameter Nylon Hopkinson pressure bars is used to investigate the rate sensitivity of various metallic cellular materials. In order to identify the factor responsible for the strength enhancement of those materials, an experimental analysis is performed on a model structure which is a square tube made of rate insensitive materials. Significant enhancement is experimentally observed under impact loading, whereas the crushing mode is nearly the same under both static and impact loading. Finally, an inversed perforation test on sandwich panels with an instrumented pressure bar is also presented. Such a new testing setup provides piercing force time history measurement, generally inaccessible. Testing results show a notable enhancement of piercing forces, even though the skin aluminum plates and the foam cores are nearly rate insensitive.



Materials Science Forum (Volumes 539-543)

Main Theme:

Edited by:

T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran




H. Zhao et al., "Cellular Structures under Impact Loading", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 1880-1885, 2007

Online since:

March 2007




[1] Gibson, L. J, Ashby, M. F, 1988. Cellular Solids. Pergamon Press.

[2] Zhao, H., 2004, Cellular materials under impact loading, IFTR-AMAS Edition, Warsaw, Poland. ISSN 1642-0578.

[3] Deshpande, V. S, Fleck, N. A, 2000b. High strain rate compression behaviour of aluminium alloy foams. International Journal of Impact Engineering 24, 277-298.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0734-743x(99)00153-0

[4] Klintworth, J.W., Stronge,. W. J, 1988. Elasto-plastic yield limits and deformation laws for transversely crushed honeycombs. International Journal of Mechanical Science 30 (3-4), 273292.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(88)90060-4

[5] Hanssen, A. G, Hopperstad, O. S., Langseth, M, Ilstad, H., 2002. Validation of constitutive models applicable to aluminium foams, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44(2), 359406.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7403(01)00091-1

[6] Banhart, J., 2001. Manufacture, characterisation and application of cellular metals and metal foams. Progress in Material Science 46, 559-632.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-6425(00)00002-5

[7] Reid, S. R., Peng, C., 1997. Dynamic uniaxial crushing of wood. International Journal of Impact Engineering 19 (5-6), 531-570.

[8] Calladine, C.R., English, R. W, 1984. Strain-rate and inertia effects in the collapse of two types of energy-absorbing structure. International Journal of Mechanical Science 26 (11-12), 689-701.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(84)90021-3

[9] Vural M., Ravichandran G., 2003, Dynamic response and energy dissipation characteristics of balsa wood: experiment and analysis, International Journal of Solids and structures 40, 21472170.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7683(03)00057-x

[10] Hopkinson, B, 1914. A method of measuring the pressure in the deformation of high explosives or by the impact of bullets. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., A213, 437-452.

[11] Kolsky, H., 1949. An investigation of the mechanical properties of materials at very high rates of loading. Proceeding of Physical Society B62, 676-700.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0370-1301/62/11/302

[12] Zhao, H., Gary, G., 1996. On the use of SHPB techniques to determine the dynamic behaviour of materials in the range of small strains. International Journal of Solids and structures 33 (23), 3363-3375.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7683(95)00186-7

[13] Zhao, H., Gary, G., 1997. A new method for the separation of waves. Application to the SHPB technique for an unlimited measuring duration. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids 45, 1185-1202.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-5096(96)00117-2

[14] Zhao, H., Gary, G., 1995. A three dimensional analytical solution of longitudinal wave propagation in an infinite linear viscoelastic cylindrical bar. Application to experimental techniques. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids 43 (8), 1335-1348.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5096(95)00030-m

[15] Hauser F. E, 1966. Techniques for measuring stress-strain relations at high strain rates. Experimental Mechanics 6, 395-402.

[16] Zhao, H. and Abdennadher, S., 2004, On the strength enhancement under impact loading of square tubes made from rate insensitive metals, Int. J. Solid Struct., 41(2004) 6677-6697.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2004.05.039

[17] Zhao, H Nasri, I. and Abdennadher S., An experimental study on the behaviour under impact loading of metallic cellular materials, Int. J. Mech. Sci., 47(2005) 757-774.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2004.12.012

[18] HooFatt M. S, Park K.S., 2000. Perforation of sandwich plates by projectiles. Composites: Part A: applied science and manufacturing 31, 889-899.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1359-835x(00)00021-x

[19] Radin, J. Goldsmith W., 1988. Normal projectile penetration and perforation of layered targets. Int. J. Impact Engng 17, 229-59.