Multi-Valent Metal Salt Hydrates as Catalysts for the Esterification of Fatty Acids and Alcohols
Some typical multi-valent metal salt hydrates, such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and acetate of Fe3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, ZrO2+, HfO2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn3+, Cr3+, and Cu2+ have catalytic activities for the esterification of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and alcohols. Supporting these metal salt hydrates on ordered mesoporous silica such as MCM-41 enhanced the catalytic activity of the esterification. The esters of C10-C18 normal acid and alcohol were obtained in high yield by some of supported metal salt hydrates on MCM-41; however, the yield of the esters decreased with their chain length of acids and alcohols although the activities depended on type of metal salt hydrates. The catalyst is recyclable although some loss of activity was observed.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
K. Mantri et al., "Multi-Valent Metal Salt Hydrates as Catalysts for the Esterification of Fatty Acids and Alcohols", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 2317-2322, 2007