In the paper the problem of casting and mould thermophysical parameters identification is discussed. So, it is assumed that in the mathematical model describing the thermal processes in the system considered the selected parameter (or parameters) is unknown. On the basis of additional information concerning the cooling (heating) curves at the selected set of points the unknown parameter can be found. The inverse problem is solved using the least squares criterion in which the sensitivity coefficients are applied. On the stage of numerical simulation the boundary element method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.