A Comparison of Grain Boundary Engineering Mechanisms in Copper and Brass
Grain boundary engineering (GBE) has been carried out on copper and brass. A comparison of the resulting microstructure and grain boundary characteristics from the two specimens revealed that the brass specimen had approximately the same number fraction of Σ3s as the copper specimen (38%), but a lower number fraction of Σ9s and Σ27s and a markedly different microstructure. In the brass specimen twins were not incorporated into the grain boundary network, whereas in the copper specimen Σ3s replaced portions of the grain boundary network. These two mechanisms are discussed in detail.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
V. Randle and G. Owen, "A Comparison of Grain Boundary Engineering Mechanisms in Copper and Brass", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 3365-3370, 2007