Residual strain profiles in friction-stir processed (FSP) AZ31B magnesium-alloy plates were measured using neutron diffraction. Two different specimens were prepared to investigate the influences of the tool shoulder and the tool pin on the residual-strain profiles: (Case 1) a plate processed with both the stirring pin and tool shoulder, i.e., a regular FSP plate subjected to both the plastic deformation and frictional heating, and (Case 2) a plate processed only with the tool shoulder, i.e., subjected mainly to the frictional heating. The results show that the strain profiles of both cases are qualitatively quite similar. The longitudinal strain is mainly tensile with its maximum near the bead of the FSP plate. On the other hand, the transverse and normal strains are mildly compressive in both Cases 1 and 2.