A Thermo-Fluid Analysis of the Friction Stir Welding Process
The thermo-mechanical simulation of Friction Stir Welding focuses the interest of the welding scientific and technical community. However, literature reporting material flow modeling is rather poor. The present work is based on the model developed by Heurtier  and aims at improving this thermo-fluid simulation developed by means of fluid mechanics numerical and analytical velocity fields combined together. These various velocity fields are investigated separately and especially according to the power dissipated during the flow. Boundary conditions are considered through a new approach based on the kinematic analysis of the thread of the pin. An equilibrium is established between the vertical motion of the bulk material dragged in the depth of the metal sheet, and its partial circulation around the pin. The analyses of the obtained velocity fields enable the understanding of the welded zone asymmetry and highlights the bulk material mixing between the welded coupons in the depth of the sheet. A regression is performed on the relative sliding velocity of the aluminium according to the surface of the tool: shoulder and pin. Two dimension flow lines in the depth of the metal sheet are then obtained and successfully compared with the results obtained by Colegrove (2004) .
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
D. Jacquin et al., "A Thermo-Fluid Analysis of the Friction Stir Welding Process", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 3832-3837, 2007