The Oscillation Behaviour of Liquid Metal in Arc Welding
This paper gives an historic overview and new developments of research activities in the field of the oscillatory behaviour of liquid metal in arc welding. Early work focused on the oscillation behaviour of the weld pool in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Agitated weld pools exhibit specific modes of oscillation, the frequency of which can be measured from the arc voltage data and is conditioned by the geometry of the weld pool and the properties of the liquid metal. Of technological interest is the alteration of the oscillation behaviour for partially and fully penetrated situations, which can be used for penetration control during welding. A logical extension of the research activities was related to the influence of filler wire addition on the oscillation behaviour. An intermediate step towards the description of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), is the situation of GTAW with cold filler wire supply. It was found that both the liquid weld pool and the pendant liquid droplet at the tip of the filler wire experience an oscillation, which obscures the influence of the individual contributions of both liquid masses on the voltage data. It was shown that online penetration control is still possible, provided that the metal is transferred in an uninterrupted way, i.e. the filler wire flows smoothly into the weld pool. For GMAW, in which detached droplets collide with the weld pool surface, the difficulties are even more prominent. Recent work is related to this issue. Monitoring of the phenomena occurring at the weld pool and the pendant droplet become problematic by means of the voltage data. Observations by means of high-speed video imaging will be discussed. Apart from the experimental studies, efforts are undertaken in numerical simulations of the processes. A good correlation is obtained between experimental data and the results of the numerical models.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
M.J.M. Hermans et al., "The Oscillation Behaviour of Liquid Metal in Arc Welding", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 3877-3882, 2007