Precipitation of Niobium Carbonitrides: Chemical Composition Measurements and Modeling
High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and have been used to characterize the structure and chemical composition of niobium carbonitrides in the ferrite of a Fe-Nb-C-N model alloy at different precipitation stages. Experiments seem to indicate the coexistence of two types of precipitates: pure niobium nitrides and mixed sub-stoichiometric niobium carbonitrides. In order to predict the chemical composition of these precipitates, a thermodynamical formalism has been developed to evaluate (i) the nucleation and growth rates (classical nucleation theory) and (ii) the chemical composition of nuclei and existing precipitates. A model based on the numerical resolution of former equations, is used to compute precipitates size distribution evolution at a given temperature. The predicted compositions are in very good agreement with experimental results.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
M. Perez et al., "Precipitation of Niobium Carbonitrides: Chemical Composition Measurements and Modeling", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 4196-4201, 2007