A Physically Based Model for Bake-Hardening Steels and Dent Resistance
Arcelor produces « Bake-Hardening » steels for automotive outer panels, which present the advantages of a remarkable drawability combined with a significant hardening after stamping and paint baking by the car maker. This hardening enables to increase the dent resistance of those automotive parts. In order to give easy design criterion and support the development for new “bake-hardening” steels, a physically-based model for Bake-Hardening steels has been developed. It is suitable to predict: -the physical phenomenon of strain ageing based on Cottrell atmospheres formation. A detailed description of the strain ageing kinetics is given based on a generalized form of the Harper model taking into account the diffusion of carbon atoms in the stress field of a dislocation, progressive carbon depletion in the matrix and saturation of the available dislocation sites. -the plastic instabilities propagation during tensile testing according to Piobert–Lüders phenomenon using the finite element method. A local mechanical behaviour is introduced whose shape schematically describes the local dislocation behaviour. The effect of the grain size on the velocity of the Lüders’ band front is especially enlightened. -the effect of ageing process on dent resistance. To do so, a physical extension of the former approach to more complex loading paths is proposed.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
J. L. Uriarte et al., "A Physically Based Model for Bake-Hardening Steels and Dent Resistance", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 4232-4237, 2007