Effect of Milling Condition on Properties and Microstructure of Copper Reinforced with 1% vol. NbC


Article Preview

Composites materials consisting of pure copper reinforced with 1 vol.% of NbC were prepared by the powder metallurgy route to determine the influence of the milling process on the mechanical and electrical properties. For comparative purpose different milling times at four different rotational speeds were used. The resulting powders were consolidated by hot uniaxial pressing under 90MPa for 2h at 923K to obtain materials with a fine microstructure without residual porosity. It was found that the microstructure and properties of composite materials could be principally related to the amount of Fe, Cr, C and O incorporated as impurities during the milling process. Therefore, the rotational speeds used for milling has an important influence on the properties of the final product. A lower energy-ball milling is accompanied by a smaller amount of impurities (Fe, C and O) incorporated during milling. Composites materials combine electrical conductivity above 40% IACS with high strength. A detailed microstructural analysis by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X ray diffraction showed that these properties are related not only to NbC particles, but also to the presence of very fine particles of carbides and oxides.



Materials Science Forum (Volumes 539-543)

Main Theme:

Edited by:

T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran




M. López et al., "Effect of Milling Condition on Properties and Microstructure of Copper Reinforced with 1% vol. NbC", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 826-831, 2007

Online since:

March 2007




[1] M. Hofmockel: Proceedings EURO PM 2004, Vol. 1, p.231.

[2] V. Dovydenkov and E. Shalunow: Proceedings EURO PM 1998, Vol. 1, pp.373-377.

[3] S. Nagarjuna and K. Balasubramanian, J. Mat. Science, Vol 32, 1997, pp.3375-3385.

[4] M. A. Morris and D. Morris: Mater. Scie. and Eng. A111, 1989, pp.115-127.

[5] K. Anderson, J. Groza, R. Dreshfield and D. Ellis: Met. and Mat. Trans., Vol 26, 1995, pp.2197-2206.

[6] M. López, V. Vergara, C. Camurri, J. Jiménez, Advances in Powder metallurgy, Vol 9 MPIF, 2001, pp.9-48.

[7] M. López, D. Corredor, C. Camurri, V. Vergara and J. Jiménez: Materials Characterization 55(2005) pp.252-262.

[8] M. López, C. Camurri, V. Vergara and J. Jiménez: Rev. Metal. Madrid 41 (2005) pp.308-312.

[9] M. López, J. Jiménez, V. Vergara, O. Ruano. Proceedings EURO PM 2004, Vol. 4, p.737.

[10] W.S. Miller: Scripta Met. et Materiala 25 (1991) 33-38.

[11] I.E. Anderson, J.C. Foley, Surf. Interface Anal. 31 (2001) pp.599-608.