The effects of high intensity ultrasonic melt treatment on the microstructure of magnesium alloys were investigated in this paper. Magnesium melts were treated with power ultrasonic wave and then cooled to a predetermined temperature. With the increase in ultrasonic power, the structure exhibited refined and spheroidzed crystal grains. After further increasing the ultrasonic power, the grains tended to somewhat coarsened. And increasing the ultrasonic processing time led to a grain refinement of magnesium alloy.