ZnO:Al(ZAO) thin film is a kind of transparent conductive functional material which has a potential application in the solar cell and Atom Oxygen resisting systems of spacecrafts. High performance ZAO thin films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering and then irradiated by γ-ray with different dose or rate of irradiation. The as-deposited sample and irradiated ones were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Hall-effect measurement to investigate the dependences of the structure, morphology and electrical properties of ZAO on the dose and rate of γ-ray irradiation. Measurement of Positron Annihilation Doppler-Broadening Spectroscopy was carried out to study the variation of the defects in ZAO thin films before and after irradiation. It is indicated that γ-ray will excite the carriers, which are electrons in ZAO. A high rate of γ-ray irradiation could slightly destroy the bonds of Zn-O and decrease the crystallinity, while the effect of low rate irradiation is similar to heat annealing and increase the crystallinity of ZAO thin films. γ-ray has no apparent influences on the negative vacancy defects in ZAO thin film.