Large scale and highly ordered thermoelectric BixTe1-x (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.7) nanowire arrays were successfully fabricated by cathodic electrolysis into porous anodic alumina membrane (AAM) templates in aqueous solution. The structure of the nanowires was characterized by X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that the nanowires are smooth and uniform with the diameters of about 50 nm and lengths up to tens of micrometers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to check the exact stoichiometry of as-prepared samples. The results reveal that the atomic ratio between Bi and Te can be modulated effectively by controlling the concentration of the electrolyte solution. The synthesis of high quality BixTe1-x nanowires with controllable x is significant for optimizing the thermoelectric performance.