Ferrite Formation during Slow Continuous Cooling in Steel
Ferrite formation during austenite decomposition in carbon-manganese steel is studied during slow continuous cooling by three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy at a synchrotron source. The ferrite fraction and nucleation rate are measured simultaneously and independently in real time in the bulk of the specimen. Thermodynamic calculations involving both ortho- and paraequilibrium have been performed to determine the driving force for nucleation. From the experiments and thermodynamic calculations the activation energies are estimated for nucleation and the transfer of iron atoms across the interface of the cluster during ferrite nucleation in steel.
P. B. Prangnell and P. S. Bate
S. E. Offerman et al., "Ferrite Formation during Slow Continuous Cooling in Steel", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 550, pp. 357-362, 2007