Superplastic Bulging Capability of Ti-6Al-4V Butt-Welded Plate by High Energy Beam Welding
The superplastic bulging capabilities of Ti-6Al-4V butt-welded plates with 0.8mm in thickness with high energy beam welding methods namely plasma arc welding (PAW), electron beam welding (EBW) and laser beam welding (LBW) are studied in virtue of superplastic bulging tests. Superplastic bulging tests are performed at the superplastic forming temperature 925°C under 1MPa gas pressure. The superplastic bulging capability is represented by the maximum relative bulging height h after fracture. Experimental results suggest that all of butt-welded plates with high energy beam welding methods possess good superplastic bulging capability. Among them, the maximum relative bulge height of LBW is the highest, that of EBW is slightly lower and that of PAW is the lowest. The higher the input energy density is, the bigger the bulge height will be. Furthermore their microstructure evolutions of various weld metals during superplastic bulging were systematically analyzed via metallographical tests. The relation between the microstructure of weld metal and its superplasticity is found. Metallographical analysis shows that the microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V weld metal with high energy beam welding methods is composed of fine acicular martensite. The higher the input energy density is, the finer the martensite structure will be. Upon heating, this martensite changes to a basketweave-like structure and upon bulging, the martensite structure have the trend of transforming to fine equiaxed grain. This can explained the reason why the Ti-6Al-4V butt-welded plates with high energy beam welding methods have excellent superplastic bulging capability.
G. Wang et al., "Superplastic Bulging Capability of Ti-6Al-4V Butt-Welded Plate by High Energy Beam Welding", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 551-552, pp. 411-416, 2007