Superplastic Micro Deep Drawing of Fine-Grained Nickel at Elevated Temperatures
Superplastic deformation behavior of nanocrystalline nickel was investigated under equibiaxial tension at different strain rates and forming temperatures. The nickel sheets with a thickness of 0.1 mm were prepared by pulse electrodeposition process. The average grain size of the as-deposited nickel was 70 nm and equiaxed. To determine the optimum processing parameters relevant to micro deep drawing, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from 370°C to 500°C and strain rates ranging from 10-4 to 10-3s-1. In the selected temperature and strain rate ranges, the elongation value is larger than 200%, which indicates good superplastic formability of the electrodeposited nickel. Equibiaxial forming was subsequently performed at 370°C and 450°C, using a punch with a diameter of 1mm. The effects of forming temperature, punch rates on deep drawing process were experimentally investigated. The results indicated that the nickel specimens can be readily drawn at 450°C and punch rates ranging from 0.1mm• min-1 to 5mm• min-1. TEM and SEM were also used to examine microstructures of the as-deposited nickel sheet and deformed nickel specimens. The observations showed that significant grain growth occurs even at low superplastic forming temperatures. Microstructure was found to depend on the stress state and level of deformation.
S. Ding et al., "Superplastic Micro Deep Drawing of Fine-Grained Nickel at Elevated Temperatures", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 551-552, pp. 545-550, 2007